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This section explains the lighting properties defined on the product pages together with other lighting facts.

System effect

System effect is the total effect used per luminaire, adding the LED module and LED driver together. The unit for system effect is Watt (W).

Light source

The light source effect is specified separately. The unit for effect is Watt (W).

Luminous flux

Luminous flux is the amount of light coming out of the luminaire after passing through the diffuser. The unit for luminous flux is lumen (lm).

Light efficiency

Light efficiency is a measure of the performance of the luminaire. 
Formula: Luminous flux lm / System effect W = Efficiency lm/W.

Colour Temperature 

Colour temperature is stated on lighting products. Most common for interior lighting applications is 3000K and 4000K. Both 3000K and 4000K are white light, but 4000K is cooler than 3000K. 4000K is called neutral white light and 3000K is called warm white light.

The light source colour temperature unit is Kelvin (K).

Colour Rendering Index (CRI)

CRI is a general indicator of how natural object colours will appear when illuminated by a particular light source. Generally, a CRI of Ra 70 and above will be required for most interior lighting applications.

The unit for Colour Rendering Index is Ra.


Colour tolerance

MacAdams is a measure that indicates the level of the sorting (binning). LED diodes have a natural spread in colour temperature even though they are manufactured according to the same specification. In order to have a homogenous installation when containing many luminaires the LED diodes must not differ too much. The way of solving this is to sort (binning) the diodes.

MacAdams 1-3 are typically for applications with high demands for equal colour quality.

MacAdams 3-5 are typically for general interior environments.

MacAdams 5-7 are mainly for outdoor environments and products with less demand. 

The unit for MacAdams is SDCM (Standard Deviation of Color Matching).

Light output ratio

Light Output Ratio (LOR) is the percentage of light emitted from the light source that makes it out of the luminaire. For LED luminaires it is stated as 100%.

Light data/polar diagram

Light distribution curve is one in a polar diagram plotted curve. It indicates the luminaire's luminous intensity in cd/klm in different directions as a function of viewing angle in one or more planes. A solid line shows the distribution of light perpendicular to the lamp longitudinal axis, and the dashed line shows the light distribution in the longitudinal direction. Up and down direction shows direct or indirect light output from the luminaire. Light output data can also be used for light planning in a software (eg Dialux). 


Example of an asymmetric light distribution curve.

Example of a symmetric light distribution curve.

Example of a diffuse light distribution curve.


Expected lifespan

LED modules are recognized as L70, L80 or L90. The L value describes how light output as a percentage of the value, which can be expected when the specified time is reached and combined with an expected usage or burning.

Example: L90 >100000h = 90% light compared to initial value after 100000 hours burning time.


Lux is a unit of light measurement taking area into account. In other words, light intensity.

We use lux to measure the amount of light output in a given area, where one lux is equal to one lumen per square meter. Lux is a great measurement for determining what we see as the brightness of a beam. If the light output is concentrated over a smaller area, we see this as very bright. If the light output is spread over a larger area, we see this as very weak.

The unit for illumination is Lux (lx).

Ingress Protection (IP)

Light fittings are equipped with an IP Code. IP designation consists of a two-digit code that describes the degree of protection against solid objects, moisture and water. The table below describes the respective IP Code.

Normal indoor IP ratings for office and schools are IP20.

Object size protection Protection against moisture and water
  Not protected Dripping water Spraying water Splashing of water Water jets
Protection against electric shock  IP20  IP21  IP23    
Protection against electric shock  IP40  IP41  IP43  IP44  IP45
Dust secure        IP54  IP55
Dust proof          IP65

Appliance class

In the electrical appliance manufacturing industry, the following IEC protection classes are defined and used to differentiate between the protective-earth connections requirements of devices. The table below describes the respective appliance class.

Class I

Electrical installations where the chassis is connected to earth with a separate terminal.

Class II

A Class II or double insulated electrical appliance is one which has been designed in such a way that it does not require a safety connection to electrical earth (ground).

The basic requirement is that no single failure can result in dangerous voltage becoming exposed so that it might cause an electric shock and that this is achieved without relying on an earthed metal casing. This is usually achieved at least in part by having two layers of insulating material surrounding live parts or by using reinforced insulation.

Class III

Class III luminaire is a luminaire in which protection against electric shock relies on supply at safety extra low voltage (SELV) and in which voltage higher than those of SELV are not generated.

CE approval for lighting luminaire

For a luminaire to be marketed in the EU / EEA area it must be provided with the CE mark. CE marking, which is compulsory, means that the product fulfills the requirement of the CE directive.